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Useful information


The migraine is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent headaches, often unilateral 

The exact causes of migraines are not fully understood, but a combination of genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role.


Possible causes of migraines are:

  • It is believed that over-activation of certain neurons in the brain can trigger a migraine.

  • Hormonal changes, such as fluctuations in progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle, can trigger a migraine.

  • Stress, lack of sleep, noise, brightness, and certain foods such as cheese, wine, chocolate, and foods high in nitrates can all trigger migraines.

Symptoms of a migraine can vary by person and trigger, but most people with migraines experience periodic headaches that are often one-sided and throbbing. Other common accompanying symptoms are:

  • nausea and vomiting

  • Sensitivity to light and sensitivity to loud noises

  • Weakness or numbness on one side of the body

  • Confusion or difficulty speaking or understanding

  • dizziness or lightheadedness

Migraines can progress through different phases, including the prodromal phase, the aura phase, the headache phase, and the recovery phase.

The prodromal phase can occur days or even weeks before the actual headache attack and is characterized by symptoms such as fatigue, irritability, and changes in appetite.

The aura phase sometimes occurs before the headache and can cause neurological symptoms such as blurred vision, numbness or weakness on one side of the body, or speech problems. 

The headache phase is the main symptom of migraines and can last from 4 to 72 hours. The headache is usually severe and throbbing, often localized to one side of the head. The headache may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, and sensitivity to sound. Some people may also experience painful sensations or a change in sensory perception.

The recovery phase begins after the headache and can last from a few hours to several days. During this phase, the patient may be tired and weak. It is important to find enough rest and relaxation during this phase to give the body time to recover.

Accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment can help understand and manage the course of migraines. It is recommended that you see a doctor if you suffer from migraines for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Modern migraine therapy consists of a combination of drug therapy and non-drug measures.

Medical therapy:

  • Acute therapy: This type of therapy aims to quickly relieve the pain of a migraine attack. Painkillers (e.g. ASA, ibuprofen), triptans (e.g. sumatriptan) or other special migraine medications can be used for this.

  • Prophylactic Therapy: This type of therapy aims to reduce the frequency and severity of migraine attacks. Antidepressants, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers or other special migraine medications can be used for this purpose.

Non-drug measures:

  • Behavioral measures: This may include stress management, regular exercise, a healthy diet and adequate sleep.

  • Complementary therapies: This may include acupuncture or biofeedback.

  • Lifestyle changes: This can include avoiding known migraine triggers, avoiding overwork or dehydration.

It is important to note that each patient is unique and that the most appropriate therapy must be determined for each individual. A doctor can discuss and customize the best course of action for each individual.

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