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Useful information

Central Nervous System (CNS)

The central nervous system (CNS) is an important part of the human nervous system, which consists of the brain and spinal cord. It is the body's central command and control system and plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis, coordinating physical activities and processing information.

The brain is the most important part of the CNS and is the largest and most complex organ in the human body. It is divided into different regions, each performing specific functions. The main areas of the brain are the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the encephalic trunk.

Composed of two hemispheres, the cerebrum is the part of the brain most associated with intelligence, cognition, and consciousness. It is divided into different regions, each responsible for specific functions such as movement, language, emotions and perception.

The cerebellum is responsible for the coordination of movements and balance and ensures that we can move safely and stably. The brainstem connects the brain to the spinal cord and is responsible for controlling vital functions such as breathing, heartbeat and blood pressure.

The spinal cord is an elongated portion of the CNS located in the spinal canal and contains nerve fibers that carry signals from the brain to various parts of the body. It is also involved in some simple reflexes that occur rapidly without brain involvement.

The cells of the CNS are called neurons and are the basic building blocks of the nervous system. They communicate with each other and other body tissues by sending out electrical and chemical signals. The neurotransmitters are special chemical messengers that are released at synapses and enable signal transmission between neurons.

Disorders in the CNS can lead to a variety of neurological diseases, including stroke, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help slow the progression of these diseases and improve the quality of life of affected patients.

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