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Electromyography (EMG) is a medical examination technique used to measure and assess the electrical activity of muscles.


These measurements are used to assess nerve and muscle function and to diagnose certain neurological disorders, including peripheral nerve damage, muscle diseases, and muscle control disorders.

An EMG is performed by attaching electrodes to the skin over the affected muscle or by inserting thin needles directly into the muscle being examined. During the EMG examination, the patient can be asked to activate or relax the muscle. The electrical activity, caused at rest or by the contraction of the muscle, is then recorded by the electrodes and analyzed by a doctor.

It is important to note that EMG is only part of the assessment of muscle and nerve function and that other diagnostics such as MRI  and clinical assessments may also be required to make a full diagnosis.

The development of electromyography (EMG) began in the late 19th century with the work of Francesco Bottazzi and Gabriel Lippmann, who were the first to measure electrical activity in muscles. In the 1920s, researchers such as Willem Einthoven and Edgar Adrian developed new techniques for measuring the electrical activity of muscles that can be considered the forerunners of modern EMG.

In the 1950s, EMG machines were further developed for clinical use and used to diagnose neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis and poliomyelitis. In the decades that followed, increasingly precise and sensitive EMG systems were developed, making it possible to measure subtle changes in muscle function.

In recent years, technological advances have enabled EMG data to be combined with other measurements such as EEG and fMRI to provide a better understanding of brain-muscle interactions and motor control processes. 



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